Seniors with a life insurance policy that they no longer need have the option to sell the policy to investors. These transactions, called “life settlements,” can bring in needed cash, but are they a good idea?
If your children are grown and your mortgage paid off, you may decide that there is no longer a reason to be paying premiums every month for a life insurance policy, or you may reach a time when you can no longer afford to keep up with the premiums. If this happens, you may be tempted to let the policy lapse and get nothing from it or to surrender the policy for its cash value, which usually is a fraction of its death benefit. Another option is a life settlement. This allows you to sell your policy to an investor for an amount that is greater than the cash value, but less than the death benefit. The buyer pays all future premiums and receives the death benefit when you die.
Life settlements offer seniors a way to get cash to supplement retirement income and help pay for living expenses, health care, or other needed items. They can be a good alternative to surrendering a policy or letting it lapse. But as with any financial transaction, you need to exercise caution.
The amount you receive from a life settlement depends on your age, your health, and the terms and conditions of the policy. It is hard to determine if you are getting a fair price for the policy because there are no standard guidelines for life settlements. Before selling you should shop around to several life settlement companies. You should also note that the amount you receive will be reduced by transaction fees, which can eat up a good chunk of the proceeds of the sale. In addition, you may have to pay taxes on the lump sum you receive. Finally, the beneficiaries of your policy may not be pleased with the sale, which is why some life settlement companies require beneficiaries to sign off on the transaction.
Before choosing a life settlement, you should consider other options.
If you need cash right away, you can borrow against your policy. If the premiums are too much, you may be able to stop premiums and receive a smaller death benefit. In some cases of terminal illness, you can receive an accelerated death benefit (this allows you to receive a portion of your death benefit while you are still alive). If you don’t need the cash but no longer want the policy, another possibility is to donate the policy to charity and get a tax write-off.
To find out the right solution for you, talk to your elder law attorney or a financial advisor.
For more information from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority on the pros and cons of life settlements and questions to ask to protect yourself in a sale, click here.
This article is a service of attorney Myrna Serrano Setty, Personal Family Lawyer®. Myrna doesn’t just draft documents, she ensures you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why she offers a Planning Session, during which you will get more financially organized than you’ve ever been before, and make all the best choices for the people you love.
Call us at (813) 514-2946 to schedule a Planning Session. Mention this article and ask how to get this $500 session at no charge.
Seniors and Student Loans
The number of older Americans with student loan debt – either theirs or someone else’s — is growing. Sadly, learning how to deal with this debt is now a fact of life for many seniors heading into retirement.
According to by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the number of older borrowers increased by at least 20 percent between 2012 and 2017. Some of these borrowers were borrowing for themselves, but the majority was borrowing for others. The study found that 73 percent of student loan borrowers age 60 and older borrowed for a child’s or grandchild’s education.
Before you co-sign a student loan for a child or grandchild, you need to understand your obligations.
The co-signer not only vouches for the loan recipient’s ability to pay back the loan, but is also personally responsible for repaying the loan if the recipient cannot pay. Because of this, you need to carefully consider the risk before taking on this responsibility. In some circumstances, it is possible to obtain a co-signer release from a loan after the loan recipient has made a few on-time payments. If you are a co-signer on a loan that has not defaulted, check with the lender about getting a release. You can also ask the lender for payment information to make sure the borrower is keeping up with the payments.
If the borrower defaulted and you are obliged to pay the loan back or you are the borrower yourself, you will need to manage your finances. Having to pay back student loan debt can lead to working longer, fewer retirement savings, delayed health care, and credit issues, among other things. If you are struggling to make payments, you can request a new repayment plan that has lower monthly payments. With a federal student loan, you have the option to make payments based on your income. To request an “income-driven repayment plan,” go to: https://studentloans.gov/myDirectLoan/index.action.
Defaulting on a student loan may affect your Social Security benefits.
If you have a private student loan, a debt collector cannot garnish your Social Security benefits to pay back the loan. In the case of federal student loans, the government can take 15 percent of your Social Security check as long as the remaining balance doesn’t drop below $750. There is no statute of limitations on student loan debt, so it doesn’t matter how long ago the debt occurred. If you do default on a federal loan, contact the U.S. Department of Education right away to see if you can arrange a new repayment plan.
What Happens After You Die?
If you die still owing debt on a federal student loan, the debt will be discharged and your spouse or other heirs will not have to repay the loan. If you have a private student loan, whether your spouse or estate will be liable to pay back the debt will depend on the individual loan. You should check with your lender to find out the discharge policies. Depending on the loan, the lender may try to collect from the estate or any co-signers. In a community property state (where all assets acquired during a marriage are considered owned by both spouses equally), the spouse may be liable for the debt (some community property states have exceptions for student loan debt).
For tips from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau to help navigate problems with student loans, click here.
Attorney Myrna Serrano Setty doesn’t just draft documents, she helps you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why our firm offers a Planning Session. The Planning Session helps you get more financially organized than ever and helps you make the best choices for the people you love. Start by calling us today to schedule a Planning Session and mention this article to learn how to get this valuable session at no cost to you.
Contact us at (813) 514-2946 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Although a nursing home cannot require a child to be personally liable for their parent’s nursing home bill, there are circumstances in which children can end up having to pay.
This is a major reason why it is important to read any admission agreements carefully before signing.
Federal regulations prevent a nursing home from requiring a third party to be personally liable as a condition of admission. However, children of nursing home residents often sign the nursing home admission agreement as the “responsible party.” This is a confusing term and it isn’t always clear from the contract what it means.
Typically, the responsible party is agreeing to do everything in his or her power to make sure that the resident pays the nursing home from the resident’s funds.
If the resident runs out of funds, the responsible party may be required to apply for Medicaid on the resident’s behalf. If the responsible party doesn’t follow through on applying for Medicaid or provide the state with all the information needed to determine Medicaid eligibility, the nursing home may sue the responsible party for breach of contract. In addition, if a responsible party misuses a resident’s funds instead of paying the resident’s bill, the nursing home may also sue the responsible party. In both these circumstances, the responsible party may end up having to pay the nursing home out of his or her own funds.
In a case in New York, a son signed an admission agreement for his mother as the responsible party. After the mother died, the nursing home sued the son for breach of contract, arguing that he failed to apply for Medicaid or use his mother’s money to pay the nursing home and that he fraudulently transferred her money to himself. The court ruled that the son could be liable for breach of contract even though the admission agreement did not require the son to use his own funds to pay the nursing home. (Jewish Home Lifecare v. Ast, N.Y. Sup. Ct., New York Cty., No. 161001/14, July 17,2015).
Although it is against the law to require a child to sign an admission agreement as the person who guarantees payment, it is important to read the contract carefully because some nursing homes still have language in their contracts that violates the regulations. If possible, consult with your attorney before signing an admission agreement.
Another way children may be liable for a nursing home bill is through filial responsibility laws.
These laws obligate adult children to provide necessities like food, clothing, housing, and medical attention for their indigent parents. Filial responsibility laws have been rarely enforced, but as it has become more difficult to qualify for Medicaid, states are more likely to use them. Pennsylvania is one state that has used filial responsibility laws aggressively.
We recommend that your Health Care Directives explicitly lay down a financial liability shield for your agents.
This one provision can save great grief and money.
Attorney Myrna Serrano Setty doesn’t just draft documents, she helps you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why our firm offers a Planning Session. The Planning Session helps you get more financially organized than ever and helps you make the best choices for the people you love. Start by calling us today to schedule a Planning Session. Mention this article to learn how to get this $500 session for free.
Call us at (813) 514-2946 or email us at email@example.com.
A California daughter and granddaughter’s fear of losing their home to Medicaid may have contributed to a severe case of elder abuse.
If they had consulted with an elder law attorney, they might have figured out a way to get their mother the care she needed and also protect their house.
Amanda Havens was sentenced to 17 years in prison for elder abuse after her grandmother, Dorothy Havens, was found neglected, with bedsores and open wounds, in the home they shared. The grandmother died the day after being discovered by authorities. Amanda’s mother, Kathryn Havens, who also lived with Dorothy, is awaiting trial for second-degree murder. According to an article in the Record Searchlight, a local publication, Amanda and Kathryn knew Dorothy needed full-time care, but they did not apply for Medicaid on her behalf due to a fear that Medicaid would “take” the house.
It is a common misconception that the state will immediately take a Medicaid recipient’s home.
Nursing home residents do not automatically have to sell their homes in order to qualify for Medicaid. In some states, the home will not be considered a countable asset for Medicaid eligibility purposes as long as the nursing home resident intends to return home. In other states, the nursing home resident must prove a likelihood of returning home. The state may place a lien on the home, which means that if the home is sold, the Medicaid recipient would have to pay back the state for the amount of the lien.
After a Medicaid recipient dies, the state may attempt to recover Medicaid payments from the recipient’s estate, which means the house would likely need to be sold.
But there are things Medicaid recipients and their families can do to protect the home.
A Medicaid applicant can transfer the house to the following individuals and still be eligible for Medicaid:
- The applicant’s spouse
- A child who is under age 21 or who is blind or disabled
- Into a trust for the sole benefit of a disabled individual under age 65 (even if the trust is for the benefit of the Medicaid applicant, under certain circumstances)
- A sibling who has lived in the home during the year preceding the applicant’s institutionalization and who already holds an equity interest in the home
- A “caretaker child” who is defined as a child of the applicant who lived in the house for at least two years prior to the applicant’s institutionalization and who during that period provided care that allowed the applicant to avoid a nursing home stay.
With advance planning, there are other ways to protect a house.
A life estate can let a Medicaid applicant continue to live in the home, but allows the property to pass outside of probate to the applicant’s beneficiaries. Certain trusts can also protect a house from estate recovery.
Don’t let a fear of Medicaid prevent you from getting your loved one the care they need. While the thought of losing a home is scary, there are things you can do to protect the house.
Attorney Myrna Serrano Setty doesn’t just draft documents, she helps you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why our firm offers a Planning Session. The Planning Session helps you get more financially organized than ever and helps you make the best choices for the people you love. Start by calling us today to schedule a Planning Session and mention this article to learn how to get this $500 session for free.
Call us at (813) 514-2946 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paying for day care is one of the biggest expenses faced by working adults with young children, a dependent parent, or a child with a disability. But there is a tax credit available to help working caregivers defray the costs of day care (for seniors it’s called “adult day care”).
In order to qualify for the tax credit, you must have a dependent who cannot be left alone and who has lived with you for more than half the year.
Qualifying dependents may be the following:
- A child who is under age 13 when the care is provided
- A spouse who is physically or mentally incapable of self-care
- An individual who is physically or mentally incapable of self-care and either is your dependent or could have been your dependent except that his or her income is too high ($4,150 or more) or he or she files a joint return.
Even though you can no longer receive a deduction for claiming a parent (or child) as a dependent, you can still receive this tax credit if your parent (or other relative) qualifies as a dependent.
This means you must provide more than half of their support for the year. Support includes amounts spent to provide food, lodging, clothing, education, medical and dental care, recreation, transportation, and similar necessities. Even if you do not pay more than half your parent’s total support for the year, you may still be able to claim your parent as a dependent if you pay more than 10 percent of your parent’s support for the year, and, with others, collectively contribute to more than half of your parent’s support.
The total expenses you can use to calculate the credit is $3,000 for one child or dependent or up to $6,000 for two or more children or dependents. So if you spent $10,000 on care, you can only use $3,000 of it toward the credit. Once you know your work-related day care expenses, to calculate the credit, you need to multiply the expenses by a percentage of between 20 and 35, depending on your income. (A chart giving the percentage rates is in IRS Publication 503.)
For example, if you earn $15,000 or less and have the maximum $3,000 eligible for the credit, to figure out your credit you multiply $3,000 by 35 percent. If you earn $43,000 or more, you multiply $3,000 by 20 percent. (A tax credit is directly subtracted from the tax you owe, in contrast to a tax deduction, which decreases your taxable income.)
The care can be provided in or out of the home, by an individual or by a licensed care center, but the care provider cannot be a spouse, dependent, or the child’s parent. The main purpose of the care must be the dependent’s well-being and protection, and expenses for care should not include amounts you pay for food, lodging, clothing, education, and entertainment.
To get the credit, you must report the name, address, and either the care provider’s Social Security number or employer identification number on the tax return. To find out if you are eligible to claim the credit, click here.
For more information about the credit from the IRS, click here and here.
Are you worried about taking care of a loved one who has long-term care or special needs? We can help you put plans in place so that your family isn’t left with a mess if you become incapacitated or die.
This article is a service of attorney Myrna Serrano Setty. Myrna doesn’t just draft documents, she helps you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why our firm offers a Planning Session. The Planning Session helps you get more financially organized than ever and helps you make the best choices for the people you love. Start by calling us today to schedule a Planning Session. Mention this article to learn how to get this $500 session for free.
Caring for a sick family member is difficult work, but it doesn’t necessarily have to be unpaid work. There are programs available that allow Medicaid recipients to hire family members as caregivers.
All 50 states have programs that provide pay to family caregivers. The programs vary by state, but are generally available to Medicaid recipients, although there are also some non-Medicaid-related programs.
Medicaid’s program began as “cash and counseling,” but is now often called “self-directed,” “consumer-directed,” or “participant-directed” care. The first step is to apply for Medicaid through a home-based Medicaid program. Medicaid is available only to low-income seniors, and each state has different eligibility requirements. Medicaid application approval can take months, and there also may be a waiting list to receive benefits under the program.
The state Medicaid agency usually conducts an assessment to determine the recipient’s care needs—e.g., how much help the Medicaid recipient needs with activities of daily living such as bathing, dressing, eating, and moving. Once the assessment is complete, the state draws up a budget, and the recipient can use the allotted funds to pay for goods or services related to care, including paying a caregiver. Each state offers different benefits coverage.
Recipients can choose to pay a family member as a caregiver, but states vary on which family members are allowed.
For example, most states prevent caregivers from hiring a spouse, and some states do not allow recipients to hire a caregiver who lives with them. Most programs allow ex-spouses, in-laws, children, and grandchildren to serve as paid caregivers, but states typically require that family caregivers be paid less than the market rate in order to prevent fraud.
In addition to Medicaid programs, some states have non-Medicaid programs that also allow for self-directed care. These programs may have different eligibility requirements than Medicaid and are different in each state. Family caregivers can also be paid using a “caregiver contract,” increasingly used as part of Medicaid planning.
In some states, veterans who need long-term care also have the option to pay family caregivers. In 37 states, veterans who receive the standard medical benefits package from the Veterans Administration and require nursing home-level care may apply for Veteran-Directed Care. The program provides veterans with a flexible budget for at-home services that can be managed by the veteran or the family caregiver. In addition, if a veteran or surviving spouse of a veteran qualifies for Aid & Attendance benefits, they can receive a supplement to their pension to help pay for a caregiver, who can be a family member. All of these programs vary by state.
This article is a service of attorney Myrna Serrano Setty. Myrna doesn’t just draft documents. She helps you make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why we offer a Planning Session, which will help you get more financially organized than ever before and help you make the best choices for the people you love. Call us today to schedule a Planning Session. Mention this article and learn how to get this valuable session for free.
A new report that combines nursing home quality data with a survey of family members ranks the best and worst states for care and paints a picture of how Americans view nursing homes.
The website Care.com analyzed Medicare’s nursing home ratings to identify the states with the best and worst overall nursing home quality ratings. Using Medicare’s five-star nursing home rating system, Care.com found that Hawaii nursing homes had the highest overall average ratings (3.93), followed by the District of Columbia (3.89), Florida (3.75), and New Jersey (3.75). The state with the lowest average rating was Texas (2.68), followed by Oklahoma (2.76), Louisiana (2.80), and Kentucky (2.98).
Care.com also surveyed 978 people who have family members in a nursing home to determine their impressions about nursing homes. The surveyors found that the family members visited their loved ones in a nursing home an average six times a month, and more than half of those surveyed felt that they did not visit enough. Those who thought they visited enough visited an average of nine times a month. In addition, a little over half felt somewhat to extremely guilty about their loved one being in a nursing home, while slightly less than one-quarter (23 percent) did not feel guilty at all.
If the tables were turned, nearly half of the respondents said they would not want their families to send them to a nursing home.
While the survey indicates that the decision to admit a loved one to a nursing home was difficult, a majority (71.3 percent) of respondents felt satisfied with the care their loved ones were receiving. Only 18.1 percent said they were dissatisfied and about 10 percent were neutral. A little over half said that they would like to provide care at home if they could. The most common special request made on behalf of a loved one in a nursing home is for special food. Other common requests include extra attention and environmental accommodations (e.g., room temperature). Read the entire report here.
Are you worried about being able to afford quality long-term care? We can help you incorporate a variety of planning strategies to maximize your quality of life and help protect what you’ve worked so hard for.
This article is a service of attorney Myrna Serrano Setty. Myrna doesn’t just draft documents. She helps you make informed and empowered decisions about your life and death, for yourself and the people you love. That’s why we offer a Planning Session, to help you get more financially organized than ever and help you make the best choices for the people you love. Call us today to schedule a Planning Session. Mention this article to learn how to get this $500 session for free!
If your Medicare drug plan denies coverage for a drug you need, you don’t have to simply accept it. There are several steps you can take to fight the decision.
The insurers offering Medicare drug plans choose the medicines — both brand-name and generic — that they will include in a plan’s “formulary,” the roster of drugs the plan covers and will pay for that changes year-to-year. If a drug you need is not in the plan’s formulary or has been dropped from the formulary, the plan can deny coverage. Plans may also charge more for a drug than you think you should have to pay or deny you coverage for a drug in the formulary because it doesn’t believe you need the drug. If any of these things happens, you can appeal the decision.
File An Exception Request
Before you can start the formal appeals process, you need to file an exception request with your plan. The plan should provide instructions on how to request an exception. The plan must respond within 72 hours or 24 hours if your doctor explains that waiting 72 hours would be detrimental to your health.
5 Steps Appeals Process
If your exception is denied, the plan should send you a written denial-of-coverage notice and a five-step appeals process can begin.
- The first step in appealing a coverage determination is to go back to the insurer and ask for a redetermination, following the instructions provided by your plan. You should submit a statement from your doctor or prescriber that explains why you need the drug you are requesting, along with any medical records to support your argument. If your doctor informs the plan that you need an expedited decision due to your health, the plan must notify you within 72 hours. For a standard redetermination, the plan must notify you within seven days.
- If you disagree with the drug plan’s decision, you have the right to reconsideration by an independent board. To request reconsideration, follow the instructions in the written redetermination notice you receive from the insurer. You have 60 days from the redetermination notice to request reconsideration. An independent review entity (IRE) will review the case and issue a decision either within 72 hours or seven days. If you receive a negative decision, you can keep appealing.
- The third level of appeal is to request a hearing with an administrative law judge (ALJ), which allows you to present your case either over the phone or in person. To request a hearing, the amount in controversy must be at least $160 (in 2018). The amount in controversy is calculated by subtracting any amount already covered under Part D, and any deductible, co-payments, and coinsurance amounts applicable to the Part D drug at issue, from the projected value of the drug benefits in dispute. Your request for a hearing must be sent in writing to the Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals (OMHA). The ALJ is supposed to issue an expedited decision within 10 days or a standard decision within 90 days.
- If the ALJ does not rule in your favor, the next step is a review by the Medicare Appeals Council. The appeal form must be filed within 60 days after the ALJ’s decision. You will need a statement explaining why you disagree with the ALJ’s decision. The appeals council will issue an expedited decision in 10 days or a standard decision within 90 days.
- The final step is review by a federal district court. To be able to request review, the amount in controversy must be $1,600 (in 2018). Follow the directions in the letter from the appeals council and file the request in writing within 60 calendar days.This article is service of attorney Myrna Serrano Setty. Myrna doesn’t just draft documents, she guides her clients so that they can make the best decisions for themselves and their families. Contact Myrna at (813) 514-2946 to schedule your elder law consultation today.
A recent New Jersey appeals court case shows how important it is for families to come up with a long-term care plan before an emergency strikes. The case involves two brothers who got into a fight over whether to place their mother in a nursing home – a dispute that resulted in one brother filing a restraining order against the other.
Brother vs. Brother
R.G. was the primary caregiver for his parents and their agent under powers of attorney. After R.G.’s mother fell ill, R.G. wanted to place his mother in a nursing home. R.G.’s brother objected to this plan, but R.G. went ahead and had his mother admitted to a nursing home without his brother’s consent. R.G.’s brother sent angry and threatening texts and emails to R.G. as well as emails expressing his desire to find a way to care for their parents in their home. Eventually the men got into a physical altercation in which R.G.’s brother shoved R.G.
R.G. went to court to get a restraining order against his brother under the state’s Prevention of Domestic Violence Act. The trial judge ruled that R.G. had been harassed and assaulted and issued the restraining order. R.G.’s brother appealed, arguing that R.G. did not meet the definition of a victim of domestic violence.
What is Domestic Violence?
In R.G. v. R.G. (N.J. Super. Ct., App. Div., No. A-0945-15T3, March 14, 2017), a New Jersey appeals court reversed the trial court, ruling that R.G.’s brother’s actions did not amount to domestic violence. According to the court, there was insufficient evidence that R.G.’s brother purposely acted to harass R.G., ruling that “a mere expression of anger between persons in a requisite relationship is not an act of harassment.”
Keep This From Happening in Your Family
If the brothers had sat down with their parents before they needed care to explore options and determine their parents’ wishes, this drawn-out and costly dispute might have been totally avoided. Putting a long-term care plan into place can help avoid family conflicts like this one.
To start planning for long-term care, talk to us to help you design the best plan for you.
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